Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Australian Tertiary Education Technology Adoption

What do you see as the key challenges related to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry that Australian tertiary education institutions will face during the next five years?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

NOTE: The Significant Challenges are sorted into three time-related categories based on their appearance in previous Horizon Report editions -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses to the trends below, feel free to explore why or why not the challenge should be in its specific time-related category.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" each of your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Sam Sam Jan 28, 2015

Compose your entries like this:

Challenge Name
Add your ideas here, with few complete sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!


Balancing our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With the abundance of content, technologies, and overall participatory options, learning institutions need to lead the way to facilitating finding a balance between connected and unconnected life. With technology now at the center of many daily activities, it is important that learners understand how to balance their connected life with other developmental needs. Educational institutions should lead the way to ensure learners do not get lost and absorbed by the abundance of information and technology, and encourage mindful use of technology so that students stay aware of their digital footprint. As education aligns closer with technological trends, teachers will have to promote this balance, encouraging students to feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Finding a balance and guiding learners to personal success should be society's compromise with new generations of students.- cpaterso cpaterso Feb 4, 2015- steven.knipe864 steven.knipe864 Feb 21, 2015 - mike.keppell mike.keppell Feb 26, 2015 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 - kevin.ashford-rowe kevin.ashford-rowe Feb 28, 2015 A challenge yes but do universities really have the capabilities to lead the way here? - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 - s.diener s.diener Feb 28, 2015 - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015 I think that this is, or should be, a significant component of 'what makes a university education unique...developing those that will shape the Information Age- sherman.young sherman.young Feb 28, 2015I prefer to see this as a continuum rather than a clear distinction. Most people's lives traverse online/offline in complex ways. I'm unsure about this dichotomy. Is there a time when we have 'unconnected' lives...unconnected in what ways? Perhaps it's more about lifestyle balance more generally and/or managing the balance between using technologies and technology-free experiences.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Mar 4, 2015

Competing Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of higher education where students typically receive instruction by faculty or teaching assistants per credit hour over four years, on-campus. Across the board, institutions are looking for ways to provide a high quality of service and more learning opportunities at lower costs. While massive open online courses are at the forefront of these discussions, a range of adult learning programs are creating innovative models that emphasize human interaction and multidimensional learning by cultivating 21st century skills such as intercultural communication and social entrepreneurship. Additionally, competency-based education, which tracks student skills instead of credit hours, is emerging to disrupt existing credit-hour systems. As these new platforms arise, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate the models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, and assessment at scale. It is clear that simply capitalizing on new technology is not enough; the new models must use these tools and services to engage students on a deeper level.- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Feb 8, 2015- steven.knipe864 steven.knipe864 Feb 21, 2015 - jason.lodge jason.lodge Feb 26, 2015 - s.diener s.diener Feb 28, 2015I get whats being said here, but I'm not convinced that 'modelling' is the answer...the models and experiences to draw on are so limited and embedded , aren't there other ways of thinking about it? - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 let's join in rather than see it as competition. MOOC's were originally presented as competition for universities. universities do not "own" education, but they are expected to deliver certain outcomes and be a leading light in society. so let's lead. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 28, 2015- kevin.ashford-rowe kevin.ashford-rowe Feb 28, 2015The 'market' is already 'shaping' these new models...they currently exist, I think that our challenge is to work out if and how we respond to them. Agree Kevin. - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 I agree that there's increasing competition by various models using technologies, and these provide challenges to the program architecture - seen as 'products' using a retail metaphor - in relation to increased choice and consumerisation (including domestic and international student markets) driving changes in higher education's program architecture.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Mar 4, 2015

Creating Authentic Learning Opportunities
Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in universities. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in universities and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do.- cpaterso cpaterso Feb 4, 2015- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Feb 8, 2015- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015 yeah, good theories are practical too though - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 Again, Macquarie through its university-wide PACE program has made a significant attempt at embedding authentic learning across all programs of study (~60%). My interest would be in seeing active-learning approaches across all units that make up a program of study and that the focus be on 'designed learning' and that this is valued by teachers and institutions. - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 A think a good understanding of what authentic learning really is is very important. Too many educators think that authentic learning is just providing a relatively simple simulation. Authentic learning is complex, thorny, difficult and often expensive to replicate. - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015 I am certainly seeing more practicums and field trips in the curricula, and Careers really ramping up internship opportunities in local business, and special programs tailored to prepare international students for local internships and employment as well - slambert slambert Mar 4, 2015

Expanding Access
The global drive to increase the number of students participating in undergraduate education is placing pressure across the system. The oft-cited relationship between earning potential and educational attainment plus the clear impact of an educated society on the growth of the middle class is pushing governments to encourage more and more students to enter universities and colleges. In many countries, however, the population of students prepared for undergraduate study is already enrolled — expanding access means extending it to students who may not have the academic background to be successful without additional support. Many in universities feel that these institutions do not have sufficient time and resources to help this set of students.- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Feb 8, 2015 Years ago I was very supportive of expanding access to undergraduate university courses to achieve an "educated society" but on reflection I don't think it is working. While access has increased whether it has been to the benefit of society, or importantly the student, is unclear. I doubt if we have a understanding of what it means to have an educated society - and it probably is not just having everyone going to "university" and leaving it to market forces. Universities have created a system generating numerous graduates who may have trouble getting a job even if in so called professional courses (e.g. how many vets, lawyers, etc are not able to practice?). An "educated society policy" could be much more than a university degree with everyone having a right to access educational resources/training. That is, broadening the concept for tertiary education - and these technologies discussed on this wiki can facilitate such a policy. - philcounty philcounty Mar 1, 2015 An associated challenge is the design of authentic assessment, which can help address online assessment design challenges.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Mar 4, 2015

Improving Digital Literacy
With the proliferation of the Internet, mobile devices, and other technologies that are now pervasive in education, the traditional view of literacy as the ability to read and write has expanded to encompass understanding digital tools and information. This new category of competence is affecting how education institutions address literacy issues in their curriculum objectives and teacher development programs. Lack of consensus on what comprises digital literacy is impeding many universities and colleges from formulating adequate policies and programs that address this challenge. Discussions among educators have included the idea of digital literacy as equating to competence with a wide range of digital tools for varied educational purposes, or as an indicator of having the ability to critically evaluate resources available on the web. However, both definitions are broad and ambiguous. Compounding this issue is the notion that digital literacy encompasses skills that differ for educators and learners, as teaching with technology is inherently different from learning with it. Supporting digital literacy will require policies that both address digital fluency training in pre- and in-service teachers, along with the students they teach.- mike.keppell mike.keppell Feb 26, 2015 - sherman.young sherman.young Feb 28, 2015Not just for students, this is a key challenge for a large number of academic staff. I'm not just referring to working with an LMS, or using social media in their teaching, many colleagues see digital as a barrier they need to get over and are reluctant to learn new ways. We need to find more ways to help them. - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 Is the term "digital literacy" still valid as a concern if we are talking about capabilities for individuals to use digital devices or applications? Most youngsters, even in developing countries, are now increasingly comfortable with the concept of using a digital device or an "app". Apologising for the use of the term "literacy" what may be more important are information literacy (processing and using multiple data sources for example), system literacy (integrating multiple sources of both data and active outputs) and network literacy (e.g. IoT). - philcounty philcounty Mar 1, 2015 I come from a VET background so I would like to see our students graduate with a "digital toolbox" and a range of different literacies. A set of life long learning skills that can scaffold learning through out life. It also includes attitudes or values: willingness to play; to take risks; fail; try different technologies in context. - ktairi ktairi Mar 1, 2015 I agree with the latter and we need to ensure students leave university with a professional digital identity - rather than a trail of embarrassing facebook photos - slambert slambert Mar 4, 2015

Integrating Technology in Faculty Education
Faculty training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence, training in the supporting skills and techniques is rare in teacher education and non-existent in the preparation of teachers. As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but we are far from seeing digital media literacy as a norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015 I'm not so sure why we are considering teacher education more 'significant' for inclusion in this list than other forms of education. Also, when it comes to online professional development programs, i only see a plethora of options for trainee teachers - hundres of MOOCs for example. Also, where's the value of enabling the new teachers when there is never the time or resources to enable the massive already-trained and in the workforce set of teachers?- slambert slambert Mar 4, 2015 Significant reviews of teacher education seem to be located in a pre-Internet era, and not drawing upon contemporary research on the knowledge base for teachers, which is increasingly requiring technological knowledge, as well as content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. There is an expanding research base on technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), including research which is suggesting a new model of pedagogical reasoning and action with technologies.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015- steven.knipe864 steven.knipe864 Feb 21, 2015 why not do all teachers education and professional development through digital mean...break the mode - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 Many "digital native" undergraduate teachers still refer to technology in education as a separate entity - an add on or something to be used with discretion and care...in teacher education if technology was modelled the way it should then be used in the k-12 sector, new teachers might understand how technology can value add, open opportunities and become a less obvious addition to the classroom - rather something that is used as needed with the same decision making process as which pen or piece of paper might be used. I would like to encourage teacher education to stop talking about ICT in education and to focus on contemporary learning strategies. - annieagnew annieagnew Mar 1, 2015 The TEMAG report has been released and has, disappointingly, little to say about technologies and teaching and learning. In my view, it's largely a pre-1993 analogue report.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Mar 4, 2015 Capacity-Building One of the most significant challenges facing Australian HE (and probably HE internationally) is its capacity to design and deliver high quality online/blended learning on a large scale. This requires "capacity building". New business models, rethinking staffing, designing new learning spaces, and so on are part of the capacity building process but the most significant part is building the capacity of staff to "teach" well online/blended. The research is clear on the importance of the quality of the teaching. What strategies are in place to improve the quality of our HE teachers and their capacity to teach well online? - geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 27, 2015 this is what I'm tackling head on now in a traditional research-led university- ...full of smart people, I'm enjyoing the ride, Kotter handbook in hand - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 If we are to successfully achieve improvements in "capacity building" we need to first change attitudes of both institutions and individual academics. As mentioned above by Sherman the system encourages a focus on narrow disciplinary activities, especially their own research, rather than teaching quality. When involved with a review of learning environments I was surprised, and disappointed, by the overwhelming passivity of the majority of academics. Apart from the enthusiasts many expressed concerns about the effort involved with teaching with a new environment rather than the teaching outcomes. - philcounty philcounty Mar 1, 2015

Keeping Formal Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what universities can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in tertiary education settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile. age old issue, how can the digital world help?- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015 Privatisation of Education We are seeing the backlash from this in the vocational sector at the moment in Australia. Private providers (sometimes, not always) are motivated only by the profit imperative and are providing low quality learning in return for high cost. Competition between providers is not sorting this out - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015

Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 I'd relate this to the digital literacy challenge listed above. - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 I agree with both previous comments and would also add that i don't agree this is a 'significant' or new issue. I tend to disagree with the assumption that we are always overwhelmed at the new stuff flying at us - i think that much of what emerges is a modification or gradual improvement of what has gone before or a mash-up of 2 existing things. It's not that hard to work out if the new thing is something of interest, and for those who tend to be overwhelmed will tend to rely on their friend and colleagues for guidance and i don't see that as a problem.- slambert slambert Mar 4, 2015

Personalising Learning
Personalised learning includes a wide variety of approaches to support self-directed and group-based learning that can be designed around each learner’s goals. Solving this challenge means incorporating into university activities concepts such as personalized learning environments and networks, adaptive learning tools, and more. Using a growing set of free and simple resources, such as a collection of apps on a tablet, it is already quite easy to support one’s on going social and professional learning and other activities with a collection of resources and tools that is always on hand. There are two paths of development for personalized learning: the first is organized by and for the learner, which includes apps, social media, and related software. University goals and interests are driving the other path, primarily in the form of adaptive learning. In this pathway, which envisions the development of tools and data streams that are still some time away from being seen on campyses, adaptive learning is enabled by intervention-focused machine intelligence that interprets data about how a student is learning and responds by changing the learning environment based on their needs. While the concept of personalized learning is fairly fluid, it is becoming more and more clear that it is individualized by design, different from person to person, and built around a vision of life-long learning.- mike.keppell mike.keppell Feb 26, 2015 Personalised learning is no longer about what the learner knows now, but concerns how the learner can learn more. In the future we will be unceasing learners, acting on feedback that we feed-forward to our next application of knowledge. Learners will need to adopt a ‘growth mindset’ as opposed to a ‘fixed mindset’ (Dweck, 2006). When a learner adopts a growth mindset, they openly seek challenge and thrive on challenge. They exhibit purposive engagement that is a key to learning. Growth mindset learners progress by cultivation of their efforts and they have a passion for stretching themselves as opposed to limiting themselves (Dweck, 2006). A roadmap for personalised learning focuses on six dimensions: (1) digital literacies, (2) seamless learning, (3) self-regulated learning, (4) learning-oriented assessment, (5) lifelong learning, and (6) learning pathways. - mike.keppell mike.keppell Feb 26, 2015 yes interesting one. [Editor's Note: Comments added here from RQ2.]

Rethinking the Roles of Educators
Professors and intructors are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their universities; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students, along with their families, add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders argue that universities should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many universities across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of teachers. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways teachers engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources.- cpaterso cpaterso Feb 4, 2015- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Feb 8, 2015- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015- steven.knipe864 steven.knipe864 Feb 21, 2015 - jason.lodge jason.lodge Feb 26, 2015 - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 I agree and would add that it is time to rethink the role of "academic" and nature of academic work. We have a 1970s model of staffing that compels a lecturer to multitask a number roles some of which are nicely described above, add in research, service, administration, course coordination, committee work, etc, etc - all of which need to be done well. What the work is, how we get it done well, and who does it, definitely needs a shake up.- geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 27, 2015 agree geoff, but at present this is interpreted as more hierchical structures in the university, people who are 'not' academic.... (:- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015. - helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 the traditional university structures of faculties, colleges, schools etc with academic staff who are expected to design and deliver the curriculum and professional staff whose role it is to "support" academic staff is not really going to afford a sustainable model into the future. we now have many professional staff with postgraduate and research qualifications just the same as our academic staff. academic staff don't need support, they need colleagues where all colleagues share equal responsibility for the outcomes for student experience and outcomes.- geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 28, 2015- helen.carter helen.carter Mar 1, 2015 - slambert slambert Mar 4, 2015- sherman.young sherman.young Feb 28, 2015this is a key tension. Colleagues identify as disciplinary researchers first and foremost, and everything else is often prioritised below that. For many, students count, but engaging with new technologies is very low on the list. We need to consider what the best use of people's time, knowledge and experience is - for the optimum student experience/outcome.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Mar 4, 2015

Scaling Teaching Innovations
Our organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015
Currently, innovation in using technologies is often seen as the 'exception' rather than mainstream.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015- steven.knipe864 steven.knipe864 Feb 21, 2015

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data, such as the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the United States.106 As campuses embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online and in 1:1 settings, researchers see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Universities around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but sometimes the safety of student data is threatened when third-party vendors provide low-cost software as a service in return for access to student data that they then profit from.

Teaching Complex Thinking
It is essential for young people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through computational thinking — to understand the difference between human and artificial intelligence, learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks, and deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. The semantic web, big data, modeling technologies, and other innovations make new approaches to training learners in complex and systems thinking possible. Yet, mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. - jason.lodge jason.lodge Feb 26, 2015....teach systems thinking along with coding to young children onwards - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015- s.diener s.diener Feb 28, 2015

Under-resourced Campus Infrastructure
Critical university infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems. I agree. All universities are struggling with their operating cash flows to support earlier capital investments, including those in the e-learning space. Practitioners and theorists within T&R have to become more positively engaged at the institutional policy levels or resource issues may become more than a serious challenge. - philcounty philcounty Feb 23, 2015 - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015

Added as New Challenges by Panel to RQ4


Defining and Transitioning to New Business Models for Higher Education
The traditional social contract that has defined a place for higher education in society and established the parameters for funding, and provided a context for the experience of students is increasingly being questioned. Technology is part of the questioning process as it redefines our expectations for many typical activities. The challenge for existing organisations is predicting the type of changes that are needed for future educational experiences to be relevant in student's lives and creating a viable business model for an educational organisation supporting these new experiences. Genuinely disruptive technologies cannot be incorporated into existing organisational models without significant change - by definition. The challenge is how to maintain the characteristics of the existing system that are valued, while also responding to the legitimate needs identified by groups such as Ernest and Young in the graphic below, and doing so in a political and economic environment that is intolerant of risk and fearful of innovation in organisational and institutional models. There is also the problem that the individual institutions lack the resources for innovation, even a small reduction in student numbers due to an unpopular or misunderstood attempt to innovate (Melbourne anyone?) can be damaging. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 15, 2015. Agree, the current HE business model is unsustainable. In my area - too many students, too many courses, too many providers - link this with inefficiency, duplication of effort, wasted resources, and you don't get innovation.- geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 27, 2015- s.diener s.diener Feb 28, 2015

Policy and Social Context
Thought about adding this as an extra comment to Stephen's contribution above on "Defining and Transitioning to New Business Models for Higher Education" but then concluded it may be a separate or extended challenge. No technology, disruptive or otherwise, sits in isolation to business (e.g. T&L, Higher Ed) models. There is the important question on context and context can be expressed in many ways such as social, political, cultural and economic. So discussion/debate inputs to what is emerging now for new HEd business models include (not exclusively): economic triggers, continued globalization, extended government policy issues including HEd but as part of the broad landscape, internal (within institutions) policy debates, demographic changes, popular culture expectations etc ... plus the future of disruptive technology. A successful horizon outcome for disruptive technologies would include a response to the other challenges and not sit in isolation. For example some questions circling around at the moment are: in Australia precisely what competencies do we want our students to have on completion; what is the future demand for skills in what areas; what curriculum/syllabus is best suited to deliver outcomes; what is the requirement and balance between liberal u/g, vocational, professional and graduate studies; how is HEd to be funded; is HEd best delivered vertically or broadly; ....; what are the best systems for achieving desired answers to these questions. These are not new questions (think I've heard similar over numerous years) but answers will differ depending on the political/social cycles. - philcounty philcounty Feb 25, 2015 This is a big question I think, particularly as we move through mass education models with their focus on accountability to start thinking about what effective universal education looks like and how it impacts society, very clear the US is struggling with this with their focus on individual rights and distrust of collective social action. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Mar 2, 2015

Risk Strategies for Innovation
Whenever we introduce a new innovation or process part of the design should include a risk analysis. An example of data sensitivity is given above but there can be many others with a more immediate danger to students - such as those publicised with bullying on Twitter. Cognitive strategies for addressing negative feedback or conflict would be beneficial to teachers faced with such issues. - philcounty philcounty Mar 1, 2015 Agreed. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Mar 2, 2015

Online Connectivity Issues
Increasing Reliance on Online Some 61% of the world's population does not have access to the internet. The shift to the online provision of learning is marginalising sectors of our community that are already marginalised. Australia is a big country with connectivity a huge issue in many areas. Even with the coming of the NBN, and the much watered-down version we are getting now, many of the marginalised will not be able to afford to access the internet. - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015


Combined with Existing RQ4 Challenges


Capacity-Building
One of the most significant challenges facing Australian HE (and probably HE internationally) is its capacity to design and deliver high quality online/blended learning on a large scale. This requires "capacity building". New business models, rethinking staffing, designing new learning spaces, and so on are part of the capacity building process but the most significant part is building the capacity of staff to "teach" well online/blended. The research is clear on the importance of the quality of the teaching. What strategies are in place to improve the quality of our HE teachers and their capacity to teach well online? - geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 27, 2015 this is what I'm tackling head on now in a traditional research-led university- ...full of smart people, I'm enjyoing the ride, Kotter handbook in hand - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 28, 2015 If we are to successfully achieve improvements in "capacity building" we need to first change attitudes of both institutions and individual academics. As mentioned above by Sherman the system encourages a focus on narrow disciplinary activities, especially their own research, rather than teaching quality. When involved with a review of learning environments I was surprised, and disappointed, by the overwhelming passivity of the majority of academics. Apart from the enthusiasts many expressed concerns about the effort involved with teaching with a new environment rather than the teaching outcomes. - philcounty philcounty Mar 1, 2015 [Editors Note: Added to existing RQ4 Challenge Integrating Technology in Faculty Education]

Privatisation of Education
We are seeing the backlash from this in the vocational sector at the moment in Australia. Private providers (sometimes, not always) are motivated only by the profit imperative and are providing low quality learning in return for high cost. Competition between providers is not sorting this out - helen.farley helen.farley Mar 4, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits in well with existing Challenge: Keeping Formal Education Relevant and will be added there.]

Combined with Existing RQ3 Trends


Technologies and Assessment
There are significant expectations of technologies to improve assessment approaches, including feedback, immediate and timely results, and there are associated online assessment challenges; e.g. designing and assuring academic integrity, designing authentic web-based assessment, verification, etc.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 17, 2015- s.diener s.diener Feb 28, 2015 definitely one of the areas for significant increase in activity and sophistication.- geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 28, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits in with existing RQ3 Trend: "Growing Focus on Measuring Learning" and will be added there.]